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A royal funeral ceremony in England

A royal funeral ceremony in England
Queen Elizabeth II died on September 8, 2022, and the pictures of the funeral ceremony went around the world. In addition to the "gossip" in the tabloid press, they also showed one thing: The funeral was a well-planned act of state based on ancient historical rituals. Reason enough to take a closer look at a royal funeral in late medieval England. ...
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Sleeping in the Late Middle Ages - The Reconstruction of an Authentic Bed Equipment

Sleeping in the Late Middle Ages - The Reconstruction of an Authentic Bed Equipment
There is a persistent myth that in the Middle Ages, at best, people slept on a straw sack on the floor and covered themselves with their cloaks. But dozens, if not hundreds, of illustrations in medieval manuscripts show elaborate bed constructions with furnishings that are familiar today. But how was such a late medieval bed exactly constructed? A ...
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Nuremberg Bells for the New World

Nuremberg Bells for the New World
Since the 15th century there is a proverb that still today many know, especially in Bavaria: Nürnberger Tand reist durch alle Land, which means "Nuremberg trumpery travels through all lands" And indeed, as a manufacturing and market place for all kinds of goods, Nuremberg was one of the most important centers in Europe in the Middle Ages and the ea...
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What is the taste of the Middle Ages?

What is the taste of the Middle Ages?
In search of the taste of the Middle Ages - Part 3 Recipes from back then cooked at home today. What to consider? Anyone who enters the terms "Middle Ages" and "cooking" in the search masks of the relevant online book portals will find plenty. The selection is large: books with historical recipes for today's cuisine, witch cookbooks, feasting like ...
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What is the taste of the Middle Ages?

kochen-auf-dem-herd
In search of the taste of the Middle Ages - Part 2 Historical sources and archaeological finds provide conclusions about past epochs. When theory meets practical implementation - as in experimental archaeology - additional insights into the life of the people of that time emerge. This also applies to cooking and the taste of the Middle Ages. Cookin...
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What is the taste of the Middle Ages?

What is the taste of the Middle Ages?
"In search of the taste of the Middle Ages - the way from the recipe manuscript to the finished dish. " This article is the start of the small series including re-cookable recipes. The question "What does food in the Middle Ages taste like?" cannot be answered in general terms. Because a big role also plays who eats what, when and where?In the sear...
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Medieval infant burials from St. Martin in Eggolsheim, Bavaria, Germany

3Ausgrabung-St.Martin-Eggolsheim-Oberfranken
The following article deals with a topic that is certainly not the most pleasant for many readers: deceased infants. From an archaeological point of view, however, the results of an excavation of infant graves at the parish church of St. Martin in Eggolsheim (district of Forchheim, Upper Franconia, Bavaria) have brought interesting findings to ligh...
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The Battle of Hussitenbierl - a forgotten turning point in Bavarian history in the Middle Ages

Ausschnitt-Kupferstich-die-grosse-schlacht-heinrich-pflug-von-schwarzenberg : Ausschnitt aus dem Kupferstich
The reporting and documentation of military conflicts has always been of particular importance, as they often represent key events in the course of history. In most cases, military operations from modern times have been handed down or archived in detail. However, the Battle of Hussitenbierl in the Upper Palatinate of the late Middle Ages has not on...
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"Walking dead" - The belief in walking corpses in the Middle Ages.

Symbolbild-Archaeologische-Ausgrabung-Pfarrkirche-Mariae-Himmelfahrt-Teuschnitz-Landkreis-Kronach-Oberfranken
Trigger warning: the article is about the medieval superstition of walking corpses and the, from today's point of view, strange rituals that can be called desecration of corpses. The fear of the dead by the living is a deeply human emotion and can be found in all cultures of the world. In medieval northern Bavaria, too, there are indications that t...
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Where does the “Maßkrug“ – the typical bavarian beer mug – actually come from?

Bamberger-Masskrug-mit-zwei-Eichstrichen-Fraenkisches-Brauereimuseum Bamberger Maßkrug mit dem 1,069 Liter Eichstrich und dem Reichseichstrich von 1,0 Liter ab 1872. (Exponat aus dem Fränkischen Brauereimuseum, Bamberg)
On April 23, 1516, the Bavarian Beer Purity Law (Reinheitsgebot) was enacted by Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria. For this reason, "Beer Day" is celebrated every year on April 23. Reason enough to dedicate ourselves to this topic here as well. The at least 6,000-year-old history of the popular barley juice fills countless books and offers an almost unmanage...
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Beer…

Zeichnung-Gefaesse-Schnurkeramik-In-Terra-Veritas-Bamberg Schematische Zeichnung aufgehängter Gefäße der Schnurkeramik (Zeichnung: Alexandra Decker, Marlene Ruppert Dallmann, 2022, IN TERRA VERITAS Bamberg)
…is not only a popular beverage today, but was probably already so in prehistoric times. The first evidence of beer brewing points to the late Paleolithic Natufian period, as suggested by the remains of germinated barley from the Raqefet Cave in Israel (about 13,700 - 11,700 years ago). However, it is not only the potential age of beer that is inte...
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Stones in the Stone Age - a sought-after raw material and commodity

Baltischer-Feuerstein Knolle aus baltischem Feuerstein von der deutschen Küste. (Foto: Marlene Ruppert-Dallmann)
The Stone Age was named after the fact that people made tools from stone. But stone is not just stone, but a raw material of varying quality and grade. Thus, it was also a coveted commodity and was transported and traded by the Stone Age people over great distances. Today, archaeology can reconstruct through finds how and via which routes there wer...
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The role of women in the Stone Age ... quite different than previously thought. (Part 2/2: The view of anthropology)

Gemischte Gruppe von jagenden Menschen Gemischte Gruppe von jagenden Menschen (Zeichnung von Andreas Fischer, IN TERRA VERITAS Bamberg)
The assumption that men hunted in the forests while women gathered food and cared for children is deeply rooted in our conception of prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies. But does the empirical evidence really support this version of gender-differentiated work, or is it a fiction of our modern society? Besides archaeological findings, anthropology...
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The role of women in the Stone Age … quite different than previously thought. (Part 1/2: The view of archaeology)

Gemischte Gruppe von jagenden Menschen Gemischte Gruppe von jagenden Menschen (Zeichnung von Andreas Fischer, IN TERRA VERITAS Bamberg)
To this day, the image of Stone Age hunter-gatherers persists. Brave men hunt mammoths, and the weaker sex is suitable at best for collecting berries. (It should be mentioned that gathered plant foods were equally important for the nutrition and survival of prehistoric and early historic cultures). This idea dates to the 19th century and is still i...
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The cowboys of the Middle Ages drive herds of cattle as far as Nuremberg

Hungarian_Gray_Ox_AdobeStock_57376931 Hungarian gray ox (Source: Adobe Stock)
»Countless feral cattle are rounded up in the steppe by cattle herders. Over hundreds of kilometers they drive them in huge herds to the big cities in the west to sell them there for profit. Some big merchants who organize these herd drives make a fortune in the process.« This account does not describe any aspect of North American history of the 19...
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Witch mania in Franconia - The sad fate of Margaretha Königerin

Hexenverbrennung-spaetes-15Jhd.--Jger2004s115 Burning of witches, late 15th century
Margaretha Königerin lives a simple life in Michelau in Lower Franconia (Bavaria/Germany). Her husband had already died 11 years before. Then comes the night of June 16-17, 1617. Several men took her out of her house and searched her belongings for witchcraft tools or ointments. The widow, over 50 years old, is put on trial for witchcraft. She imme...
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Gold for the margrave

Markgraf-Christian-Ernst-von-Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Medallion Markgraf Christian Ernst von Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Medallion)
On May 7, 1686, Christian Wilhelm Cronemann entered the place of execution in Kulmbach (Northern Bavaria, Germany). Just a few months ago, he was a respected figure at the court of Margrave Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. He will not live to see the evening. The rope will be the last distinction he receives from the margrave. As archaeolog...
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How Native Americans adorned themselves with Bavarian pearls

Proterobasknopf-Schwabach-Mittelfranken-In-Terra-Veritas Gut erhaltener Proterobasknopf aus dem 17. Jahrhundert, gefunden von IN TERRA VERITAS bei einer Ausgrabung im mittelfränkischen Schwabach
In the soil of Upper Franconia at the Ochsenkopf mountain – the second highest mountain of the Fichtelgebirge – there is a strip of the rare rock proterobas, about 7km long and only 20m wide, which exists only in this one place in the whole of Central Europe. Proterobas is a fine-grained subvolcanic material that can be melted like glass and has be...
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The "naval battles" of Bayreuth

Model template for the Neptunus, today exhibited in the Bayreuth City Museum.  (Source: Archiv für Geschichte von Oberfranken, Bd. 65, S.328) Model template for the Neptunus, today exhibited in the Bayreuth City Museum. (Source: Archiv für Geschichte von Oberfranken, Bd. 65, S.328)
About 300 years ago, several warships meet each other under cannon thunder and enveloped in gunpowder vapor. The brave sailors on both sides work hard to maneuver the ships around their respective opponents and get into firing position. A scene you would expect to see somewhere on the world's oceans? No, it took place in this or a similar way in th...
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